Sustainable developmant of cement industry

Cement is made by burning limestone with clay, plaster, and some other materials in rotary kilns. Cement manufacture is quite energy intensive process and it generate large amount of Co2. This large amount of Co2 emission comes not only from fuel burning such as coals and oil but also from the chemical process related to limestone. Therefore, Co2 emission from Cement industry accounts for 5% of global man-made Co2 emissions.
In 2002, 10 world leading cement such as Lafarge (France: world largest cement company: [http://www.lafarge.com/]) formed research and study program CSI (the cement sustainability initiative) [http://www.wbcsdcement.org/] in order to explore sustainable development of cement industry.
Concerning Japan, the energy efficiency in cement manufacture is quite high and Co2 emission per cement production is the lowest in the world. These days, cement companies in Japan have been making efforts to use industrial wastes as part of raw materials of cement and as a fuel in cement making. About 28 million tons of wastes were used in cement production in 2003 (Data from Japan cement association [http://www.jcassoc.or.jp/]). This waste recycling is one of the ways to reduce waste disposal problem and CO2 emission problem, which in turn brings the reduction of cement producing cost. I think this is one of the examples that link business and environment.
On the other hand, industry is facing the difficulty in increasing the amount of waste to recycle in the factories because there is a government regulation related to quality of cement.
So, now, I think that cement industry has to make best efforts to technological improvement that makes it possible to use more waste in the cement factory without any negative effect to the quality of cement. By implementing this, it may be possible more actively to link the cement business and waste recycling. For example, as a total system, selling cement to clients (concrete, construction companies etc) and collecting industrial waste from them may become possible.

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